Military News

Friday, December 18, 2009

Gates Encourages Graduates to Seek Public Service

By Carmen L. Gleason
American Forces Press Service

Dec. 18, 2009 - Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates challenged the graduates of the University of Georgia this morning to consider the obligations of service, citizenship and patriotism as they move forward into the next chapter of their lives. During his commencement address in Albany, Ga., Gates said America needs its best and brightest to step forward to serve others.

"If America is to continue to be a force for good in the world – for freedom, justice, the rule of law, and the inherent value of each person – then the most able and idealistic of our young people – of you – must step forward and accept the burden and the duty of public service," he said.

Serving others can take many forms, the secretary said.

"Working in the public sector at some level offers a chance to learn the inner workings of our government and to build skills that will stand you in good stead to deal with other challenges," he told the graduates.

The audience applauded when Gates announced that later today he will commission eight of the graduates as second lieutenants in the military.

"This is no light commitment, and certainly no segue into a life of ease and comfort," he said. "They join an American military that has been actively waging our nation's war for almost a decade now." In a year's time, the secretary noted, some of these young men and women could be leading troops in the war zones of Iraq or Afghanistan.

Putting others before self is not a new concept to many graduates of the university, Gates said. He reminded the audience of a 2004 graduate who became a military police officer who was killed while deployed to Iraq; the 1952 graduate who turned down the opportunity to play professional football and went on to serve several tours in Vietnam and later founded the military's most elite counter-terrorism unit; and the graduate who, in 1933, left his position as professor to work with farmers to transform cooperative farming during the Great Depression.

"To serve our country, you don't need to deploy to a war zone or a Third World country or be buried in a windowless cube in a Gothic structure by the Potomac River," Gates said. "Whatever the job, serving in government requires a singular commitment to missions and themes larger than yourself."

The secretary caused the graduates to chuckle as he recounted some of the good and bad experiences he's had in his 43 years of working for the CIA, the National Security Council and the Defense Department.

"But I still believe that public service remains a necessary and honorable calling and, contrary to the perceptions of many, a fulfilling and satisfying opportunity," Gates said.

"We live in a time of great necessities – a time when we cannot avoid the burdens of global leadership. The stakes are too high," he said. "So I ask you, the University of Georgia Class of 2009, will the wise and honest among you come help us serve the American people?"

Researcher Shares Cold Safety Tips for Soldiers

By  Christen N. McCluney
Researchers at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine are coming up with ways to sustain soldiers’ performance in environmental extremes, a research physiologist at the institute said.

"Our job is to help [soldiers] do their job better in rough environments," John Castellani told listeners to the “Dot Mil Docs” program on Health.mil.

Hypothermia, frostbite and nonfreezing cold injuries are common in winter and in cold environments, he said. Areas of the body affected by frostbite usually feel cold and firm, and burning, tingling, stinging, or numbing sensations may also be felt, Castellani said. White spots may appear on the skin in minor cases, and more severe cases could cause blistering and tissue damage.

"One of the biggest things is to get out of the environment and to re-warm the tissue," he said. Though the first instinct is to warm the area over a fire or an engine, he added, the best step is to re-warm very slowly to make sure there is no major damage.

Castellani emphasized the need to get out of the environment to prevent major tissue damage from frostbite. "You are better off to allow tissue to remain frozen than to be in an environment where you are in a freeze- thaw -freeze cycle," he said.

Another way soldiers can prevent cold-related injuries is to protect their bodies. "How you dress is the biggest preventive method," Castellani said.

Dressing in layers provides insulation from trapped air. He suggested that soldiers wear a base layer that allows moisture to move through it, rather than cotton, which absorbs sweat. Silk, polypropylene and other synthetics serve as the best materials, he said, because they allow moisture to move away from the skin.

The middle layer should be materials that provide insulation, such as fleece and wool, and the top layer should be windproof and waterproof. Soldiers should use knowledge of layering to create their own number of layers based on their personal preference, he added.

Staying dry is important in preventing cold-related injuries, Castellani said. Getting wet from sweat or rain or wearing wet gloves or boots can cause injuries, he said.

Protecting the skin is also another measure Castellani recommended to stay protected in the cold. Wind chill, the temperature felt on exposed skin due to wind, can get low before seeing an actual frostbite injury. Wind from helicopter rotors and moving downhill in a cold environment need to be taken in to account when protecting the skin, he noted.

Another possible injury is one not usually associated with cold weather. "Sunburn can still happen in the winter, and you can still get sunburn when the UV index is low," Castellani said. Wearing sunscreen is important in a cold environment, he said, because there is always a chance of sunburn from indirect light off snow. "Snow blindness," which he said is sunburn of the eye, is easily preventable by wearing sunglasses or goggles, he said.

Although the cold doesn’t change the body’s requirements for food and water intake very much, Castellani suggested staying hydrated and listening to your body to know when you may require more food to maintain your energy. Some people burn more calories than usual walking in the snow or carrying extra weight from cold-weather clothing or backpacks, he said.

"When you go to a cold environment, work in it and see how it goes, and then adjust from that," he said.

(Christen N. McCluney works in the Defense Media Activity’s emerging media directorate.)

DOD Evaluates Sexual Harassment & Violence Programs At Military Service Academies

The Department of Defense (DoD) today released key findings from "The DoD Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the United States Military Service Academies for Academic Program Year (APY) 2008-2009." The report integrates findings from evaluations of the academies' sexual assault prevention and response programs, prevention of sexual harassment programs, and cadet and midshipman focus groups.

The academies saw an overall decrease in the number of sexual assault reports made to authorities in APY 2008-2009. During the evaluation period, there were a total of 25 reports of sexual assault at the academies. All cadets and midshipmen who reported a sexual assault were able to access support services through their sexual assault response coordinators.

"One sexual assault is too many," said Gail H. McGinn, performing the duties of the under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness. "Our assessment shows the academies understand and have institutionalized some remarkable programs to prevent and respond to this crime."

As part of the comprehensive review, DoD officials met with personnel from the U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Naval Academy and the U.S. Air Force Academy, reviewed academy policies and procedures, conducted an extensive data call for reports and investigative files, and held focus groups with cadets and midshipmen. Based on information obtained during these site visits, DoD officials found that the academies' programs fulfilled, and in some cases, surpassed the requirements of existing DoD policies and directives.

The assessment found that the military service academies have:

- Processes underway to continue refinement of their prevention and response programs for sexual assault and sexual harassment;

- Response structures that provide comprehensive and consistent support for victims of sexual assault;

- Education and training that ensure every cadet and midshipman receives sexual assault and harassment prevention and response information;

- Programs for sexual assault and harassment prevention and response that are a permanent part of their curricula; and

- Initiatives underway to develop measures of program effectiveness.

Cadet and midshipmen focus group members provided frank observations, including the following:

- The majority of participants understood both restricted and unrestricted reporting for sexual assault and indicated there is value in having both options.

- All participants strongly agreed that academy senior leadership is serious about preventing sexual assault.

The DoD Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the United States Military Academies wasmandated in the 2007 National Defense Authorization Act. The act directed DoD to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual harassment and sexual violence related policies, trainings and programs at the military service academies on an annual basis.

The complete report is available at http://www.sapr.mil. For specific information, contact the individual military services at 703-697-2564 for Army, 703-695-0640 for Air Force, and 703-697-5342 for Navy.

Department's 'COO' Keeps Eye on Warfighters



By Donna Miles
American Forces Press Service

Dec. 18, 2009 - A self-described "recovering budget geek" who spent four years as the Pentagon comptroller, Deputy Defense Secretary William J. Lynn III said what drives him as he crunches numbers and relentlessly scrutinizes Defense Department programs and systems is knowing their impact on front-line troops. Lynn is Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates' man behind the scenes who focuses on the department's day-to-day operations. He's been called the Pentagon's "city manager" to Gates' "mayor." But the business-minded Lynn prefers to think of himself as a chief operating officer to Gates, the CEO.

"Secretary Gates is doing more of the external role, interacting with the White House, dealing with the conflicts," Lynn explained during an interview earlier this month on the flight back to Washington after one of his relatively rare public appearances.

"I am more focused on the internal management of the Pentagon, the acquisition process, the public process, the personnel processes," he said. "I'm responsible for ensuring the department's smooth functioning – which technologies to use, which weapons to buy, which business operations to employ.

"So this is a classic inside-outside, CEO-COO kind of division of labor."

Lynn appears happy to stay out of the limelight as he oversees a portfolio bulging with relatively unsexy – but highly consequential – Defense Department issues. He makes relatively infrequent public appearances, typically to talk with targeted audiences about specific initiatives on his plate.

He traveled to an aerospace and defense conference in New York earlier this month to bolster closer cooperation between the department and industry to support warfighters' needs. Last month, he visited his alma mater, Cornell University Law School, largely to encourage government or military service.

Earlier that week, Lynn explained at a Defense Information Technology Acquisition Summit the importance of acquisition reform initiatives under way to make the system more responsive to warfighters' needs, and the need to protect the department's vast networks against the growing cyber threat.

Lynn sometimes gets to show his "softer" side during events that draw him closer to the base he strives to serve: servicemembers and their families. He recognized during an address early last month the need to do more for the military families who provide the backbone behind the force. And shortly after arriving at the Pentagon, he opened a family workshop touting the way beloved Sesame Street characters are helping military kids adjust to their parents' redeployments.

But for the most part, Lynn remains nose-to-the-grindstone, keeping two major projects front and center on his 'to-do" list: the fiscal 2011 defense budget request and the Quadrennial Defense Review, a massive 20-year look-ahead that leaves no rock unturned in the department. Both are actively in the works, scheduled to go to Congress early next year.

As he works these and myriad other issues, Lynn draws on every building block of experience on his extensive resume. He spent six years on Capitol Hill, as the late Sen. Ted Kennedy's liaison to the Senate Armed Services Committee. Eight years with private industry, most of it as a senior vice president for Raytheon, gave him valuable insights he applies every day.

In addition, Lynn is no stranger to the Pentagon. He served as comptroller during the Clinton administration, and before that, directing the Pentagon's program analysis and evaluation office. Those were the days of U.S. military missions in the Balkans and Haiti, smaller-scale operations that centered on peacekeeping.

Lynn returned to a very different Pentagon – one on a solid war footing, with sustained combat operations under way in two theaters. "That influences everything that you do in a very fundamental way," he said.

Despite so many changes, Lynn cited a constant. "The talent and dedication of the military has not changed since I left," he said.

He saw these traits in action in September, when he paid a quiet visit to Iraq and Afghanistan, accompanied by the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders, who garnered most of the headlines.

Lynn told a USO group after his return he felt inspired by the spirit of troops he chatted with as they pulled duty on a dusty base, worked on a flight line, relaxed in the mess hall and recovered in the hospital.

"Like generations before them, our soldiers, sailors, airmen, Coast Guardsmen and Marines are doing an extraordinary job," he reported.

Lynn said he felt gratified knowing the role he's helping to play – particularly through his budgeting and acquisition duties – to provide them the tools they need to succeed.

"We have to make sure that we provide the best technology we can bring to the fight, and in sufficient numbers to counter the threat," he said. "Ultimately, what we do is all about defending our security, and enabling the men and women who are on the front lines to get what they need, when they need it."

As the implementing force behind Gates' defense acquisition reform effort, Lynn said, he understands the importance of cutting inefficiencies and cost overruns to better meet those needs. He's taken on the challenge with his eyes wide open, recognizing that "repeated attempts at reform by smart, dedicated people" have failed to fix core problems, despite the benefit of more than 130 commissions and studies examining the acquisition process.

Calling this long track record "cautioning," Lynn said he believes the stars are finally aligned for positive change. The president, Congress and Pentagon are all on the same sheet of music, he noted, committed to making the difficult and sometimes unpopular decisions that true reform requires.

"I think we come at it with an approach that there is no 'silver-bullet' solution," he said. "You have to undertake a series of targeted steps."

Lynn said he'll gauge his effectiveness at deputy defense secretary largely on how well those steps lead to reform.

"If we succeed at a reform agenda that upgrades the acquisition process, makes the budget and resource allocation process more responsive, that would be a significant success," he said.

And, Lynn said, he wants to posture the department to defend its networks and protect access to the cyberspace domain. He supports the stand-up of a new Cyber Command, under U.S. Strategic Command, and said he wants to be instrumental in filling in the doctrinal and legal foundation needed for it to fully succeed.



These aren't easy issues, he concedes, but said he's committed to help in working through the challenges. The trick, he said, is focus on the big picture and to not get bogged down in minutia.

"You have to keep your head above water a bit to focus on the major objectives," he said. "You can get overrun by the day-to-day need to move things from the inbox to the outbox. You can't ignore that, but you can't get consumed by it, either."

Challenges, it seems, are what attracted Lynn back to the Pentagon, and what keeps him motivated, day in and day out, as deputy secretary.

He told the Senate Armed Services Committee during his confirmation hearing in January he would approach the job with humility. "Serving as the chief management officer of an organization as large and diverse as the Department of Defense is a task that no one is truly qualified to perform," he said.

But as one colleague, who asked not to be named, attested, few others could bring such a wealth and breadth of experience and capability to the job.

"He's a wizard. He's absolutely brilliant," he said of Lynn. He cited Lynn's Capitol Hill and comptroller experience, but also corporate smarts a department executive who'd risen through the ranks might not bring to the table.

"I watched him and his operation [at Raytheon], and how he did the bigger-picture strategic planning and thinking for the company, which was his job," the colleague said. "What struck me most was his agility to go completely out of the box."

It's an ability Lynn draws on heavily in his position. "In my mind, the decision to bring him back as deputy secretary was brilliant," the colleague said. "I was ecstatic when I saw that happen."

Approaching his first-year anniversary on the job, Lynn said he's still excited about the opportunity to make a difference.

"This is an excellent job," he said. "There is always a new challenge, so there is never a lack for things to do."

Clinton, Gates Urge Appropriations Bill Passage

By Samantha L. Quigley
American Forces Press Service

Dec. 18, 2009 - Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates issued a joint statement today encouraging Senate passage of the Defense Appropriations Bill. "We strongly urge Senate passage of the Defense Appropriations Bill today, prior to expiration of the current continuing resolution," the statement said. "Passage today will provide important support for our foreign policy and national security priorities and ensure continuity of funding for our troops in combat and for all of the Department of Defense."

The House passed the $636.3 billion Dec. 16.

If the Senate doesn't pass the bill by the close of business today, the current continuing resolution will expire. While the expiration of the continuing resolution would mean the Defense Department is out of money, it is not necessarily a mandate to pass the bill. Lawmakers could choose to pass another continuing resolution and postpone a final vote.

The Senate did, however, adopt a motion earlier today to limit debate on the topic. Despite limiting debate, a vote on the passage of the bill most likely won't occur until tomorrow.

The bill provides funding to the Defense Department for the budget year that began Oct. 1, providing a 4 percent increase for core Pentagon operations. The bill includes $128 million for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, but does not cover funds for the recently announced troop increase for Afghanistan. President Barack Obama has yet to request that money.

It also includes money for development of an alternative engine for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

Among other things, the bill does not allow for any new F-22 Raptors and trims about $900 million from the Pentagon's $7.5 billion budget to train Afghan security forces. That money would be used to purchase about 1,400 more mine-resistant vehicles suited to Afghanistan's terrain.

Requests regarding the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, are addressed as well. The bill rejects Obama's request for $100 million to close the prison, but would allow detainees to be transferred to the United States to stand trial.

Guardsman shines at U.S. biathlon team trials



By Tim Hipps
Army MWR Command

(12/16/09) - U.S. Army World Class Athlete Program biathletes 1st Lt. Jennifer Wygant and Sgt. Jesse Downs of the Vermont National Guard had impressive performances at the U.S. Biathlon World Team Trials on Dec. 12-13 here at Mount Itasca. Wygant won the women's 7.5-kilometer sprint race on Saturday with a time of 23 minutes, 44.2 seconds. Along the way, she missed only two of 10 shots on the firing range, making her one of the top two shooters of the day.

Wygant was followed by Susan Dunklee (24:00.8) of Baton, Vt.; Laura Spector (24:15.1) of Lennox, Maine; and Tracy Colliander (25:02.9) of Durango, Colo.

Downs finished fourth in the men's 15-kilometer mass start competition on Sunday with a time of 41 minutes, 23.6 seconds. Zach Hall of Anchorage, Alaska won the event in 40:14.3, and was followed by Walt Shepard (40:16.9) of Yarmouth, Maine; and Dan Campbell (41:10.6) of Bozeman, Mont.

Both Soldiers are bidding to make the IBU Cup Team to compete with U.S. Olympic Biathlon Team contenders on the World Cup circuit and continue their quest to make Team USA for the XXI Olympic Winter Games, scheduled for February 12-28 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The Olympic biathlon and bobsled events will be contested in the nearby resort town of Whistler. The biathlon is a combination of cross-country skiing and rifle shooting, from both the prone and standing positions. It was -2 degrees at race time Sunday - without the wind-chill factor.

Downs placed eighth in the men's 10-kilometer sprint race Saturday with a time of 27:39.4. Mark Johnson of Mount Itasca won the event in 26:20.6.

Wygant finished 10th in the women's 12.5-kilometer mass start event Sunday with a time of 45:31. Colliander won the race in 40:56.9.

Guard’s armories shutter, modernize in 21st century winds



By Air Force Master Sgt. Mike R. Smith
National Guard Bureau

(12/17/09) – The National Guard’s standing armories – iconic centers of stone and brick where the nation’s Citizen-Soldiers muster to defend state and nation – are weathering a storm of change, officials here said this week.

Base Realignment and Closure law, budget restrictions, rising energy standards, post-9/11 force protection issues, technology needs, and mission demographics are some of the challenges that states and territories now face to find the best use and location for their facilities.

Some armories, many decades old, will close their doors for new construction or consolidate with other reserve components; others will be refurbished.

Still other armories are turned over to the local community and then go up for sale to bring in much-needed revenue, while some are seeing new life as community centers and museums.

The Kansas National Guard recently announced it will close 18 of 56 armories, and consolidate its units into the remaining 38.

“These closures are necessary due to reductions in the state budget and to ensure the long-term sustainment of our existing armories,” said Air Force Maj. Gen. Tod M. Bunting, Kansas’ adjutant general, in a press briefing this week.

Other Guard officials pointed out that armory closures could improve unit cohesion.

Bunting thanked the community for their service to the Guard and acknowledged the effect the closures would have on them.

“We clearly understand that if this is your community and your armory, you are disappointed by this action,” he said.

Bunting explained that the decisions regarding which armories to close involved a comprehensive, strategic analysis of all their armories and considered federal and state missions, demographic shifts in population, the ability to consolidate operations, the conditions of current facilities and the ability expand properties for new missions.

The general said the closed facilities would be returned to the communities once federal requirements were met. It is unclear what will happen to the armories after that time.

What happens to an armory depends on who owns the land and the building, said Hallet Brazelton, deputy director of installations here at the Army National Guard Readiness Center.

“In the majority of cases, it’s going to be state-owned,” he said.

Brazelton said the states reuse the buildings as their policies and procedures dictate, and the federal government also has processes in place to reuse federally-owned lands and buildings that the Guard no longer needs.

“They are used for a lot of things,” he said, adding that some states share their armories with schools or as community centers.

One historic armory in Saratoga, N.Y., found new life as the state’s military museum.

Constructed in 1889, the completely refurbished Saratoga Springs Armory displays and archives a massive collection of military artifacts, photos and records, including one of the nation’s largest collections of military flags. The armory itself is a historic property.

“It’s really something that the state works through, they make those decisions,” said Brazelton.

One of the most iconic images ever of a Guard armory being used by the community was that of Manhattan’s Lexington Avenue Armory, immediately following 9/11, said historians here.

"Certainly in the wake of 9/11, you could see how vital that armory was to the surrounding community, even though it is located in the heart of America's largest city," said Army Lt. Col. Les' Melnyk, a National Guard historian and former member of the New York Army Guard’s 69th Infantry Regiment, who was in New York during the days following the attacks. "In addition to the Soldiers of the ‘Fighting 69th,’ tons of supplies were stockpiled there and hundreds of aid workers were stationed there to give assistance to thousands of grieving family members."

The armory also served as a meeting place for victims and families. The interior stone walls were strewn with photographs, candles and makeshift shrines to those missing, and the 69th Infantry Regiment was dispatched from there to the disaster’s rubble piles and security perimeters.

The Lexington Armory and others like it continue to serve as joint meeting places for Soldiers and the community, but it will get harder and harder to maintain them over the years.

Brazelton explained that the states look at their demographics and missions, and they consider the energy and technological efficiency of their armories before making decisions on armory improvements.

“These are facility decisions and stationing decisions for facilities, and they aren’t necessarily related to force structure issues,” he said.

Aside from the smaller number of historic armories, Brazelton said that there is a larger number of armories constructed during the mid-20th century, like those closing in Kansas.

“They are getting to an age where you really have to look at them and say, ‘does it make sense to keep investing money in this facility, or does it make sense to start looking at replacing it,’” said Brazelton.

Kansas officials said that the number of Soldiers who once drilled in the ’50s and ’60s at many of their facilities has also dropped by nearly three-fold, so consolidating armories is another reason for the statewide closures.

In New York, officials said the state has recently mothballed several armories in Glens Falls, White Hall, Staten Island, Newburgh and other cities to reduce their number to 55.

“The goal, of course, is to put people into newer, modern buildings, whenever possible,” said Eric Durr, spokesman for the state’s Division of Military and Naval Affairs.

Durr said New York is choosing to share new facilities with the Navy, Marine Corps and Army Reserve in armed forces reserve centers, which saves the state dollars.

A new armed forces reserve center is being constructed in Farmingdale, on Long Island, which the Army Guard will operate.

“We will close six armories … and move everybody into the reserve center there,” said Durr.

But, he said, giving up armories – many filled with historic photographs and trophies and other Guard relics – should not mean sacrificing the Guard’s heritage for modernization.

“You move into these new buildings and you don’t have that, so what we’re trying to do is make these historic displays in the new facilities … with great air conditioning and heating and computer systems and telephones and state-of-the-art classrooms and fantastic gymnasiums, and bathrooms where the ceilings don’t fall down on you.”

Weapons school grad marks a first



By Maj. Gabe Johnson
Arizona National Guard

(12/17/09) -- An Air National Guard MQ-1 Predator pilot marked the beginning of a new era Dec. 12 as the first unmanned aircraft pilot from a reserve component to graduate from the Air Force Weapons Instructor Course at the U.S. Air Force Weapons School here. Maj. Tammy Barlette, from the Arizona Air National Guard's 214th Reconnaissance Group based at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, completed the five-and-a-half month course along with three active duty UA pilots. They were the first to attend the school in its 60-year history.

The school, regarded as having the U.S. Air Force's premier weapons and tactics training program, provides graduate-level instructor academic and flying courses. Its graduates are regarded as top authorities in their respective fields.

"I've been through a lot of training but nothing as difficult as this," said Barlette, a former A-10 Thunderbolt II pilot who left active duty to fly Predators over Iraq and Afghanistan full time with the Air Guard.

"The course is intended to make you the best instructor you can be for your squadron, weapon system and the Air Force," she said. "They teach you how to get to the root of a problem and find solutions. It's constant studying, briefing and flying."

Within the first month she had to get qualified to fly the MQ-9 Reaper. The course requires UA pilots to have dual qualification in both the Predator and Reaper so that they can routinely fly training missions with various platforms to include A-10s, F-15 Eagles and F-16 Fighting Falcons.

The school, initially created for fighter pilots, now integrates Airmen from 22 different aircraft and specialties. The addition of UAs is an indication of their value in current conflicts and the need for their inclusion in the broader Air Force mission.

"Our training was focused on preparation for the next conflict," said the major. "The course taught us to keep a focus on the future so that, when required, a vast array of weapon systems can integrate in any number of situations. I feel like I have a better grasp of how all of these capabilities compliment each other, and I think officers from other Air Force communities got a better understanding of what (UAs) bring to the fight."

Back at her unit, Barlette will be her commander's resident expert and will be relied upon to teach fellow Predator pilots how to improve operations.

"Everyone else in the unit will be marching behind her so we can learn how to better serve our customers: the troops on the ground," said Lt. Col. Randy Inman, 214th RG commander.

"We're very proud to have Major Barlette represent our unit, the state and the Air National Guard," Colonel Inman said. "We recognize the historic significance of her accomplishment and I know it was one that did not come without personal sacrifice."

One year ago Barlette was five-months pregnant with her second child when she learned of her selection to attend the school. Accepting the appointment meant she would have to leave her 1-year-old daughter and new-born son the following July.

"I talked it over with my husband and he said, 'You have to go. We'll figure out the rest.' He was very supportive, and my parents, who live in Tucson, helped us out tremendously," said Barlette.

Though Barlette admits the family separation was difficult, she says her new qualification as a weapons instructor will serve her and the UA community well.

"I just wanted to go to the school to get answers. I wanted to get better and I wanted to help my squadron get better," she said.

Barlette said weapon school patch-wearers from UA units across the country will enjoy the added benefit of being able to cross check ideas with each other.

MILITARY CONTRACTS December 18, 2009

NAVY
Raytheon Co., Tucson, Ariz., is being awarded a $200,923,690 modification to previously awarded contract for 241 Evolved SeaSparrow Missiles and 47 shipping containers for the NATO SeaSparrow Consortium. Work will be performed in Tucson, Ariz. (45 percent); Andover, Mass. (10 percent); Camden, Ark. (2 percent); Australia (11 percent); Germany (8 percent); Canada (7 percent); The Netherlands (6 percent); Norway (5 percent); Spain (3 percent); Denmark (1 percent); Greece (1 percent); and Turkey (1 percent), and is expected to be complete by August 2013. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-07-C-5431).

Rolls-Royce Corp., Indianapolis, Ind., is being awarded a $160,633,709 modification to a previously awarded firm-fixed-price contract to exercise an option to procure 78 AE1107C engines for the Navy MV-22 (62) and the Air Force (16). Work will be performed in Indianapolis, Ind., and is expected to be completed in December 2011. Contract funds in the amount of $16,004,539 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract combines purchase for the Navy ($128,100,122; 80 percent) and the Air Force ($32,533,587; 20 percent). The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md., is the contracting activity (N00019-07-C-0060).

Raytheon Co., Tucson, Ariz., is being awarded a $71,246,484 modification to previously awarded contract to exercise options for engineering and technical services to support Standard Missile II production efforts. Work will be performed in Tucson, Ariz., and is expected to be completed by June 2012. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington Navy Yard, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-09-C-5303).

Barnhart, Inc., San Diego, Calif., is being awarded firm-fixed-price task order at $22,185,559 under a multiple award construction contract for the renovation and repair of two bachelor enlisted quarters, buildings 783 and 787, at Naval Base Coronado. Work will be performed in San Diego, Calif., and is expected to be completed by September 2011. Funds for this project are provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Contract funds will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Two proposals were received for this task order. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southwest, San Diego, Calif., is the contracting activity (N2473-06-D-1059).

AmeriGuard Security Services, Inc.*, Fresno, Calif., is being awarded a $16,051,747 ($13,069,217 firm-fixed-price and $2,982,530 estimated indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity) modification under a combination firm-fixed-price (FFP) indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract for the exercise of option 1 at various Commander Navy Region Southwest installations in California and Nevada. The total contract amount after exercise of this option will be $22,571,906 ($21,948,752 FFP and $623,154 IDIQ). Work will be performed primarily in San Diego, Calif. (93 percent) and Fallon, Nev. (7 percent). This option period is from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2010. Contract funds will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest, San Diego, Calif., is the contracting activity (N62473-08-D-0514).

Lockheed Martin Systems Integration - Owego, Owego, N.Y., is being awarded a $10,000,000 firm-fixed-price delivery order against a previously issued basic ordering agreement to incorporate the Joint Mission Planning Systems mission planning environment Version 1.2 in support of MH-60R and MH-60S helicopters. Work will be performed in Owego, N.Y., and is expected to be completed in July 2012. Contract funds in the amount of $10,000,000 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md. is the contracting activity (N00019-09-G-0005).

Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., Stratford, Conn., is being awarded an $8,383,572 firm-fixed-price modification to a previously awarded indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contract to exercise an option for the VH-3D Executive Helicopter special progressive aircraft rework induction. Work will be performed in Stratford, Conn., and is expected to be completed in March 2011. Contract funds in the amount of $8,383,572 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md. is the contracting activity (N00019-07-D-0004).

Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC, Birmingham, Ala., is being awarded an $8,000,000 firm-fixed-price contract for the construction of hospital alterations at Naval Station Jacksonville. Work will be performed in Jacksonville, Fla., and is expected to be completed by August 2011. Funds for this project are provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was competitively procured via the Navy Electronic Commerce Online website with eight proposals received. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southeast, Jacksonville, Fla., is the contracting activity (N69450-10-C-1258).

W. M. Jordan Company, Newport News, Va., is being awarded firm-fixed-price task order 0002 at $7,737,000 under a multiple award construction contract to renovate building V53 for Space and Naval Warfare System Center at Naval Station Norfolk. The task order also contains two unexercised options which, if exercised, would increase the cumulative task order value to $9,308,400. Work will be performed in Norfolk, Va., and is expected to be completed by July 2011. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Eight proposals were received for this task order. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Mid-Atlantic, Norfolk, Va., is the contracting activity (N40085-09-D-5034).

Hunt Construction Group, Inc., Tampa, Fla., is being awarded a $7,657,500 firm-fixed-price contract for design and construction of a consolidated addition to the Brig at Naval Weapons Station Charleston. Work will be performed in Charleston, S.C., and is expected to be completed by May 2011. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was competitively procured via the Navy Electronic Commerce Online website with 11 proposals received. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southeast, Jacksonville, Fla., is the contracting activity (N69450-10-C-1756).

AIR FORCE

Peerless Technologies Corp., Fairborn, Ohio (FA8650-10-D-6051); Decypher Technologies, Ltd, San Antonio, Texas (FA8650-10-D-6052); P3S Corp., San Antonio, Texas (FA8650-10-D-6053); Prairie Quest, Inc., Ft. Wayne, Ind. (FA8650-10-D-6054); Solutions Through Innovative Technologies, Inc., Tulsa, Okla. (FA8650-10-D-6055); and SpecPro Technical Services, San Antonio, Texas (FA8650-10-D-6056) are each being awarded a $93,000,000 contract. These contracts will provide administrative and functional support, medical and biomedical research assistance, clinical and clinical hyperbaric medicine services, environmental bio-terrorism support, technology evaluation and research studies support services to Brooks City-Base and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base units. At this time, $670,713 has been obligated. AFRL/PKH, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio is the contracting activity.

Boeing Co., Seattle, Wash., was awarded an $89,672,780 contract which will purchase one Boeing 737-C40C aircraft. At this time, $13,645,780 has been obligated. 655 AESS/SYKA, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8625-10-C-6505).

Boeing Co., Seattle, Wash., was awarded a $75,245,730 contract which will provide funding for the annual C-32A and C-40B/C contractor fleet support (Jan. 1, 2010 through Dec. 31, 2010). At this time, the entire amount has been obligated. 655 AESS/SYKA, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (F33657-01-D-0013).

Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, Clearfield, Utah, was awarded a $38,344,687 contract which will exercise option 8 for the prime integrated contract to support the Minuteman weapon system. At this time, the entire amount has been obligated. 526 ICBMSG/PKE, Hill Air Force Base, Utah, is the contracting activity (F42610-98-C-0001).

DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY

Sterling Foods, Inc., San Antonio, Texas, is being awarded a maximum $38,165,900 firm-fixed-price contract for bakery items for use in meal-ready-to-eat packages. There are no other locations of performance. Using services are Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. There were originally 32 proposals solicited with four responses. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The contract is exercising the fourth option year period. The date of performance completion is Dec. 19, 2010. The Defense Supply Center Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa., is the contracting activity (SPM3S1-06-D-Z118).

Lockheed Martin Services, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md., is being awarded a maximum $20,615,059 firm-fixed-price, time-and-material, sole-source contract for civilian personnel management services, operational development, sustainment and maintenance. Other location of performance is Texas. Using services are Army, Navy, Air Force, federal civilian agencies, Executive Office of the President, Broadcasting Board of Governors. There was originally one proposal solicited with one response. Contract funds will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The contract is exercising the fifth option year period. The date of performance completion is July 31, 2010. The Defense Logistics Agency, Philadelphia, Pa., is the contracting activity (SP4700-05-C-0020)

Archaeologists Preserve Underwater Heritage

By Christen N. McCluney
Special to American Forces Press Service

Dec. 18, 2009 - Archaeologists with the U.S. Navy History and Heritage Command are conducting underwater research to study wrecks, recover artifacts and preserve Navy history. "A large percentage of the Navy's history resides in sunken shipwrecks and aircraft ... literally scattered around the globe," Robert Neyland, head of the underwater archaeology branch at the command, explained during a Dec. 16 interview on the Pentagon Channel podcast "Armed with Science: Research and Applications for the Modern Military."

He was joined by Alexis Catsambis and George Schwarz, who also are archaeologists at the branch.

The underwater archaeology branch is responsible for interpreting and applying science and archaeology on the Navy's sunken ship and aircraft wrecks. The team is responsible for the management and study of more than 3,000 shipwrecks from the Continental Navy period to present time and more than 14,000 lost aircraft from the 1920s to the beginning of the Cold War, Neyland said.

The archaeologists also contribute to the understanding of the Navy's and the nation's underwater cultural heritage. They travel all over the world to locate, assess and preserve wrecks that are property of the U.S. government, whether in U.S., international or foreign waters.

The science and technology used to locate and study shipwrecks include diving equipment and remote sensing equipment such as sonar, multi-beams and magnetometers, Neyland said. These tools, which date back to the Cold War, are aided by global positioning devices to locate and survey wrecks.

Catsambis said that because underwater archaeology has evolved only since World War II with the creation of the aqualung, the archaeologists have had an opportunity to draw from larger fields to create a "toolbox of resources" mixing marine sciences, anthropology and archaeology.

"Technology [has] advanced in underwater archaeology on the diving side," Neyland said. "People can go deeper and can stay down longer using mixed gas and rebreathers, going to depths they couldn't go to 20 to 30 years ago."

An example of this is CSS Alabama, a vessel that went down off of the coast of France in 1864. The wreck was in an area with a strong current that allowed divers to explore only in short windows twice a day. Using sonar imagery and divers, the wreck site was explored under the direction of a joint French-American scientific committee.

"What in the past limited diving is now accessible," Neyland said.

Preservation and conservation also play an important role in naval archaeology. "Conserving is treating an artifact and keeping it in a stable condition," Schwarz said. "The long-term care is preservation and keeping them in environmentally controlled environments so they won't be destroyed."

A goal of the underwater archaeology branch is to treat and stabilize artifacts for study and display. Objects such as metals can corrode quickly, leather and other goods can deteriorate, and wood can shrink when recovered from an underwater environment. The branch also works in the investigation of ship and aircraft wrecks to find the remains of servicemembers as well. "One of the really remarkable things archaeology can do is give these unknown sailors a face once again and a history," Neyland said.

"Underwater archaeology really has been interfaced between history and science," he added. "It's a place that brings the historical questions together with the scientific techniques and procedures."

(Christen N. McCluney works in the Defense Media Activity's emerging media directorate.)